被『強酸強鹼』噴到或淋到時要如何處理?

2013年11月份,台灣石油工會,第一分會月刊報導(高雄廠)
作者,許廷訓,台灣中油公司(Taiwan cpc petroleum )服務,
目前是兼任,高壓特定氣体訓練班(中油公司,對新進員工的基礎訓練)的助教。
在高壓氣体訓練班的課程,我問過將近100個,以上來自台灣中油,全國各單位的工作人員,你們如果被硫酸淋到時你要如何做,所有的人異口同聲說,要用大量的清水沖洗,80%以上的人都有大學以上的學歷,他們都這樣說,我當場告訴他們,如果是這樣的,你會死的很難看,這也是我認為該公開讓大家知道的原因,目前高雄廠,所有有強酸強鹼的地方,告示牌(物質安全資料表),所有的說明都說,如被強酸強鹼淋到時要用大量的清水沖洗……..這種說法是正確嗎?如不正確為什麼幾十年來沒人質疑?在學校的化學實驗室老師,也是這樣告訴我們的?

本人以前曾經被因銹蝕管線針孔洩漏的硫酸所噴到,當時的感覺是好像有一個火把靠近你的臉頰,很熱很熱,我當然了解是被硫酸所噴到,(只是當時必須離開現場,因為那裡洩漏,一時間,看不出來那洩漏的地點),當時我所做的是,用未被硫酸所噴到的衣服擦拭被硫酸所噴到的臉頰,再去沖水,5-10分鐘,但是這跟沒有擦拭去沖水有什麼差別?
N年前高雄廠,曾發生運酸槽車在洩酸入TANK時槽車出口管線,因壓力爆開,當時有兩個人被噴到,但是事後一個沒事(槽車司機)另一個人住院植皮,每天哀哀叫,時間長達十個月,為什麼差這麼多,原因是事發當時,司機很鎮靜,立即脫光身上所有的衣褲,拿起事先準備好的清潔棉布,擦拭身上的硫酸,再去沖先,另一個本場的工作人員,則是驚慌失措一路叫喊《救命》,待有人發現,他被硫酸所噴到時,用水沖洗他身上的硫酸,這一洗,洗出大問題,當然不洗也是大問題,時間是毫秒計算,為什麼差這麼多?
原因是硫酸的沸點為338℃,水的沸點只有100℃,水遇到硫酸時開始沸騰產生反應熱,硫酸可以迅速與蛋白質及脂肪發生醯胺水解作用及酯水解作用,從而分解生物組織,造成化學性燒傷。不過,其對肉體的強腐蝕性還與它的強烈脫水性有關,因為硫酸還會與生物組織中的碳水化合物發生脫水反應並釋出大量熱能。

除了造成化學燒傷,所以如有任何人遇到硫酸,正確的處理方式應該保持鎮靜,找出現場可以擦拭的棉布或其他可以擦拭的紙等(這是減量,減少附著在皮膚的硫酸),立即擦拭再去沖水5-10分鐘。
最多只是如一級燒燙傷,這一事件後我遇到一個在大發工業區擔任某化學公司,槽車司機的X先生,我問他遇到時如何處理,他說就這麼處理,我問他為什麼不將這消息公告給社會大眾知道?他說了,幹,人家官大學問大,我只是一個司機,人家會聽我的意見嗎,我無言以對。
他舉出三個例子,來說明處理方式不同所造成的結果,第一例,在國道一號上發生遊覽車撞擊,鹽酸槽車事故,槽車破裂,遊覽車上的檔風玻璃也破了,鹽酸噴到司機的眼睛,隨車小姐立即以飲用瓶裝水沖洗司機的眼睛,結果是,後來司機的眼睛洗好了,司機的眼睛,也完蛋了,第二例發生在某加工區,槽車洩酸時,也發生因長時間使用後的物質脆化(當時忘了問他材質到底是塑膠的或橡膠的,約使用多久了)洩酸管線爆裂了,一個不知是好奇或無知的經理,靠近槽車很不幸的,那經理被噴到了,當然槽車司機處理經驗很豐富,立即脫光那經理身上所有的衣物幫他擦拭後再沖洗,入院十多天就回家,無大事,第三例,發生在該生產硫酸的公司內,兩個工作人員,被破裂管線的硫酸所噴到,一個如同第二例,司機幫忙處理,另一個,因一時間他無法幫忙,其他現場的人也驚嚇到,不敢也不懂,幫另一個被酸噴到的人脫衣服,而是直接用水幫他沖洗,結果,後果很慘痛,体無完膚,根據司機的說法,醫生所開的嗎啡給患者服用都無效,無法止痛,也是哀哀叫長達幾個月。
本文出來前,我所做的實驗,(戴有面罩的安全帽掛橡膠手套及護目鏡穿雨衣)去買已切好的豬皮20X10用鐵丁固定在木板上,用鹽酸做實驗,有擦拭和沒有擦過的實驗結果一目了然,所以被強酸鹼所噴到一定要先擦拭過再沖水,才是保命之道。
如果我們把濃硫酸慢慢地倒入水中,卻是安安靜靜的,水只是漸漸的變熱,而且不濺開來。當濃硫酸與水遇在一起,就發生化學反應,生成水合物,同時放出大量的熱,1公斤的濃硫酸與水化合時放出的熱量,足以使2公斤的冷水,一下子升高到攝氏100度。



濃硫酸看上去像油,可是卻比水重(1.9倍),比同體積的水差不多要重上一倍,很明顯,如果把水倒進濃硫酸,水就浮在濃硫酸上,當發生化學反應時,水就猛烈地沸騰起來,四處飛濺。



如果反過來把濃硫酸倒進水裡,情況就不一樣了,濃硫酸比水重,把濃硫酸慢慢地倒進水中,它就逐漸地沉到水底,然後再分佈到溶液的各個部分,這樣,反映所產生的熱量被均勻地分配到整個溶液,溫度慢慢上升,不會使水迅速地騰起來。
本人在此真誠的建議,各級學校的實驗室或化學系所,各公司有用到強酸鹼的地方,應立即修改告示牌(物質安全資料表,有強酸鹼的地方,應準備棉布做擦拭用,不要用化學纖維布,大林廠有硫酸法的烷化(以硫酸為催化劑的製程)工場,更應該準備好,因為10年20年後所有的管線,除非全面更新,絕對會這裡漏,那裡漏。

備註,本文部份,參考維基百科及網路文章,感謝工安課,王錦波先生與第七硫磺總領班,楊耀昆先生對本文的校正。
,也歡迎老師,本人在此授權,請賢人翻譯成英日文,給世界各國的朋友分享,請將公司的CPC排在前頭,說明這是在台灣的CPC公司人員所做的實驗。

Nov. 2013, Monthly journal report of 1st branch of OIL LABOR UNION in Kaohsiung Taiwan CPC. By Mr. Hsu Ting XUN, serve in Taiwan CPC, now is the part time TA for the HIGH-PRESSURE SPECIFIC GAS training class, a class which trains all the new employees in CPC.


In the HIGH PRESSURE training class, I ever asked more than 100 members from all different departments and branches of CPC TAIWAN., “If you were sprayed or poured by sulfuric acid, what would you do!?” The answer is 100% in unison “Rinse with great amount of water!” You know, 80% of these members graduated from universities. They all did say so. Hearing the answer, I on the spot told them “If you did so, you were destined to die ugly”This is why I insist to make it public.
Nowadays in Kaohsiung plant, all where there is sulfuric acid or alkali, as well as all the bulletin boards [material safety sheets]shows: “Rinse with great amount of water while sprayed by sulfuric acid” But is this statement appropriate and accurate!?If not, why for decades nobody doubted!? And we were all taught so by chemistry teachers in labs of schools?
Before, I ever sprayed by sulfuric acid leaking from the needle hole of a corrosivepipe. I felt like a burning torch accessing my face. It’s extremely hot. I surely realizedit wassulfuric acid, but I couldn’t spot where the leaking hole was. I had to leave right at that moment. The step took first was to wipe my sprayed face with the clean part of my clothes then, rinsedit with water for 5-10 minutes. But on earth, what makes the difference with the way you rinsedwithout wiping it clean first!?
Years ago in Kaohsiung plant, a sulfuric acid transporting truck’s exporting pipeline burst because of pressure while vented sulfuric acid into the tank. Two men were sprayed. Yet later on, one man [the driver] was not serious, while another one had to be hospitalized andgrafted, leading a crying miserable life for ten months. Why such a big contrast! The reason is right at thatmoment, the driver completely calmed himself down, ripped all his dressing off then, wipedsulfuric acid with the clean cotton that he used to prepare ahead, then rinsedwith water the last. As to the other man, he was crying and screaming in panic all the way till someone found him and helpedrinse with great amount of water. Here the key problem is: Water or NOT WATER firstdefinitely matter a lot! It was so urgent, what made such a big difference? You know the boiling point of sulfuric acid is 338centigrade degree while water only 100. When water meetssulfuric, water begins to
boil and produce heatas reaction. Sulfuric acid, along with protein and fat, rapidly facilitates[R-C-NH2] hydrolysisandEster hydrolysis, further todecompose bio- tissue, causing the chemical burns. Its strong corrosion to body dorelate toits strong dehydration.Sulfuric acid can cause dehydration reaction when it meets the carbohydrate of bio-tissue then, release great amount of heat to causechemical burns. So for anybody sprayed by sulfuric acid, the accurate approach is to calm down,immediatelywipe off acid with clean cotton or paper available [this is to minify or reduce the sulfuric acid on skin] ,then rinse 5-10 minutes. The worst resultcan only be one grade burn.
Afterwards, I met Mr. X, a tank driver who served in a chemistry company in DAFA INDUSTRIALZONE. I asked what he would do if he met same situation. The answer was completely the same approach. Then why he didn’t make it public? His answer was“I am just a driver, can any high ranking officer listen to my opinion!?” I was totally speechless.
He gave three examples to illustrate three different results caused by the diverse handling procedure:[a]. One tour bus bumped into sulfuric acid- loading truck on the ZHONGSHAN national freeway. The tank broke down. So did the window shield of the tour bus. Acid sprayed onto the bus driver’s eyes. The lady tour guide spontaneouslyrinsed his eyes with bottle water. The eyes were washed, but ruined.[b].This accident happened in THE PROCESSING ZONE. When an acid tank vented, the venting pipeline burst [pipelinebeing brittle after long use.][Material of pipe is plastic or rubber, or how long it has been used not known]. An either curious or ignorant manager walked close to the tank and unfortunately he was sprayed. Thanks to the well experienced tank driver, he immediately ripped off all the manager’s dressing, wiped his body clean, thenrinsed with water. About 10 days in hospital, he returned home without big problem. [c].In a sulfuric acid producing
company, two workers sprayed by the broken pipeline. One was managed under accurate approach, yet another one was not so lucky. He, with the help of the stunned people around, directly rinsed the body. What’s the result!? Miserable and severely!! He kept hospitalized for long,even the morphine prescribed by doctor couldn’tkill his pain, recalled the poor worker.
Before this article came public, I did an experiment [wearinghelmet with mask, rubber gloves, goggle and raincoat].I bought some chopped pigskin 20x10,nailedthemontowood . After pouring acid, I observed the wipedand not wiped pigskin, and the result was obvious at aglance. So if sprayed by acid or alkali, wipe clean first, then rinse. This is the life-saving approach.
If we pour thick sulfuric acid into water, quietly and gradually the water will be getting hot, and will not splash. When thick sulfuric acid mixes with water, chemical reaction happens, producing hydrate and at the same time releasing big amount of heat. The heat released by 1kg thick sulfuric acid hydrating with water can lead to a sudden rise of temperature of 2kg cold water to100 centigrade degree.
Thick sulfuric acid looks like oil, but actually it is heavier than water by 1.9 times, and heavier 1 time than water of same volume. Obviously, if we pour water into thick sulfuric acid, water will float on the acid.Chemical reaction happens, water will violently be getting hot, and splash all over. ON the contrary, if we pour thick sulfuric acid into water, the effect differs. It is heavier than water, it will gradually sink into bottom and distribute in each part of liquid, so the reacting heat is distributed in the liquid in average. The temperature rises slowly and slowly, the water will not be getting hot rapidly andfuriously. Here, I sincerely suggest that all labs and chemistry departments in schools or all companies where sulfuric acid and alkali are used should amend all bulletin boards [material safety sheets]. Where there is sulfuric acid or alkali, cotton[no chemical fiber cloth] should be readily prepared. Especially, DALIN plant has the
alkylation workplace of sulfuric acid [Sulfuric acid or hydrofluoric acid as a catalyst in processing]. It should have to be well prepared, because all the pipelines absolutely should be leaking where and there after 10 or 20 years, unless they are all updated.
RE: parts of this article took wiki and internet for reference. Great thanks to Mr. Wang Jin-bo, industrial safety division, and Mr. Yang Yao- kun, the leading foremanof 7thsulfur, for their guidance and correction. Welcome friends all over the world translating it into kinds of languages to help those in need. And don’t hesitate to write me if necessary for more understanding and interpretation.
Thanks!!

Thanks sister melody translation
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訊息部分有誤,對於化學性灼傷緊急照護順序,並不是如文章所說直接沖洗大量清水。

經查台北醫院、台北榮總、嘉義基督教醫院等醫療機構衛教資訊,均有提到“應先去除硫酸再以清水沖洗20~30分鐘”,原因是濃硫酸混於水會產生熱度,會造成更嚴重的灼傷。本訊息對硫酸灼傷的照護說法並不正確。

資料佐證

https://www.cych.org.tw/cychweb/cych3/ad/files/2018123M031化學藥品灼傷的緊急處理-燒傷-2016-07-21.pdf

https://ihealth.vghtpe.gov.tw/media/727

https://www.tph.mohw.gov.tw/english/public/hygiene/6fe420f83446c09504268de8e2f1bf35.pdf

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